Connecting people with nature in Ontario's Mississippi Valley

2010 MVFN Spring Gathering – Adirondacks Come to Lanark County

Time to register for MVFN’s Thursday, May 20 Spring Gathering banquet and lecture—May 20, 2010. Tickets must be purchased in advance by May 14.  See details at end of articleAdirondack Park Comes to Lanark County!

by Cathy Keddy

Tahawus, Adirondack

Where is North America’s nearest and largest protected landscape? Perhaps the Everglades, or maybe Yellowstone National Park? No, not even close. They are much too small and distant. In fact, North America’s largest protected landscape is only a few hours drive from Lanark County. Not Algonquin Park, although at roughly 3 times the size of Lanark County it is indeed large and significant. However, it isn’t nearly as big as the Adirondacks, in the opposite direction, and just south across the St. Lawrence River in northern New York.

Double the size of Algonquin, the Adirondacks are easily eight times the size of all of Lanark County. Very big and near—just over the horizon, a vast reservoir of plants and animals already adapted to our northern climate. In fact, the Adirondacks are so close that many birds could spend the night in the Adirondack forests, and drop in the next day to visit us. The wood thrushes, rose- breasted grosbeaks and yellow-rumped warblers are already making their way north to Lanark County, and may right now be planning their last night of rest in the Adirondacks before dropping in to breed in our forests. Some may also carry seeds from their last meal to deposit here. It is entirely possible, therefore, that the Adirondacks and Lanark County are biologically linked. Did the beech trees of Lanark County spread slowly north after the ice age, or did they simply drop out of the sky as seeds in the crops of passenger pigeons? Yes, there are old records of passenger pigeons nesting south of Carleton Place, and beech seeds were one of their favoured foods. Of course, hunters exterminated passenger pigeons, so they are no longer carrying tree seeds north. But other birds may be taking up some of the slack.

A truly remarkable aspect of the Adirondacks is its similarities to Lanark County, and Algonquin Park. It is a large dome of hard rock, mostly gneiss and granite, of the same age and chemical composition as the rocks that underlie much of our county. Consequently, it is the headwaters for rivers. The forests have northern tree species like white pine, red oak, sugar maple, and hemlock. (Indeed, if you were dropped by helicopter on the shore of a small lake, you might not know whether you were in Algonquin, the Adirondacks, or northern Lanark County.) Even the bird calls and frog calls would be the same.

Early in its history, the Adirondacks experienced the same impacts as Lanark County. The area was logged and mined. Wildlife was trapped for felt hats, forests were harvested for potash bound for Europe and charcoal was exported for iron ore. Hemlock trees were stripped for tanning leather. By the mid 1800s, the wild landscape was beginning to show the negative impacts of human exploitation. Then, remarkably, in 1892, in what was then a cutting-edge environmental decision, the state of New York decreed that the forests of the Adirondacks would remain “forever wild.” Although much of the landscape had already been altered, the remainder, perhaps some 200,000 acres, remained intact, leaving one of the largest stands of old growth forest in eastern North America. So, if you want to see what Lanark County looked like in the really old days, drive south into New York State. Saranac Lake is accessible by highway, but some of the hills around it have never been cut. In contrast Algonquin was so heavily logged that old growth is rare.

Of course, not everyone has the time to drive to the Adirondacks, so the Mississippi Valley Field Naturalists have gone one better. They are bringing the Adirondacks to Lanark County with Dr. Jerry Jenkins, a well known biologist who has spent 40 years exploring the park. Jenkins, Forest Issues Coordinator for the Wildlife Conservation Society, will speak at MVFN’s Spring Gathering 2010 being held May 20 in Carleton Place. Enjoy a banquet dinner beginning at 6 pm, and following the banquet, let Dr. Jenkins be your guide to the delights of the Adirondacks and their lessons for the future of Lanark County.

Spring Gathering 2010 will take place Thursday, May 20 at the Carleton Place Curling Club, 102 Patterson Crescent. Tickets ($20), which include a reception and banquet, are available by contacting Brenda Boyd (613-256-2706) in Almonte. Tickets must be purchased in advance by Friday May 14. They can also be purchased at Read’s Book Shop in Carleton Place or the Nature Lover’s Bookshop in Lanark. Or send a cheque to MVFN, Box 1617, Almonte, ON K0A 1A0 (must be received by Friday May 14), and your tickets can be picked up at the event.

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Our lecture series Algonquin to Adirondacks: Big Picture Conservation series summary

Algonquin to Adirondacks: Big Picture Conservation

summary of series prepared by Pauline Donaldson for 2010 Whip-poor-will newsletter 

Our monthly lecture series is an important part of MVFN programming and for our audiences. This years series Algonquin to Adirondacks: Big Picture Conservation is now drawing to a close but has been quite a journey. Our speakers have addressed different aspects of ‘Big Picture Conservation’ from the concepts of conservation corridors, to large-scale biosphere reserves, to our own interaction with the landscape through time, and species which can act as sentinels for entire ecosystems.

The Algonquin to Adirondack (A2A) area is a natural corridor on Canadian Shield stretching 300 km from Algonquin Park to Adirondack State Park in New York. The vision of the A2A conservation connection requires us to consider protecting biodiversity and ecosystems on a broader scale than we were accustomed to thinking about. In our first lecture Emily Conger, President of the Adirondack to Algonquin Conservation Association (A2A) gave an introduction our lecture series. Conger explained that there is still much conservation potential in the corridor; with much poor agricultural land being abandoned, pioneer species are now returning in places. There is evidence species do move along the A2A corridor, the most famous being Alice the Moose. However there are challenges such the impacts of human activities in the busy St. Lawrence River area (the hardened shorelines of Howe Island being an example). Also, the fact that presently there are no parks in North America that are really large enough to be self-sufficient.

In our October lecture we enjoyed a virtual visit to Algonquin Park, at one end of the A2A conservation corridor. Senior Park Naturalist Justin Peters began with a thorough historical overview of the Park. Limitations to it’s conservation potential are clear. For example, there are only 50 years left for the Big Crow White Pine area because it needs natural fire to allow pines to grow. Secondly, he pointed out the park still supplies 45% of wood harvested in Central/Eastern Ontario. Is there the political will to reduce this? As for insights into the importance connectivity to conservation areas such as A2A for wildlife in Algonquin, Peters said it depends on the species. Grizzlies will wander off, while wolverines need almost as much space but will not cross roads. On the other hand, some black bear populations in the Bruce Penninsula have become isolated in pockets that are likely not large enough to sustain them. The Kirklands Warbler, which was extinct in the park has now been heard at the Petawawa base near the park, which he says is hopeful because there is potential Jack Pines habitat in the park which can be enhanced to bring this species back to the park. Interestingly, fishers, once eliminated in Eastern Ontario from all but Algonquin, are now returning, but genetic studies show they are mostly coming from Bancroft, Gatineau and the Adirondacks with very little input from Algnoquin.

The third lecture given by Don Ross of the 10000 Islands-Frontenac Arch UNESCO designated Biosphere Reserve (FABR) put into perspective the importance of this ecological region stretching from the St. Larwence River north to the southern tip of Lanark County. It is at the crossroads of the ancient granite north-south Frontenac Axis A2A link and the east-west Great Lakes Basin to Atlantic Ocean migration link. It has many microclimates and the greatest diversity of life in Eastern Ontario. FABR is a unique not-for-profit group partnering with a many other groups on a wide range of projects linking community values to conservation efforts. One example is interactive website developed for the public to record, map and photograph valuable natural features. The map includes part of Lanark County.

With our fourth lecture by historian Dr. Brian Osborne, our big picture expanded infinitely to encompass conservation issues through time and we were challenged to understand not only natural landscapes but proscapes and inscapes. In Shifting Perceptions of Nature -Dr. Brian Osbourne likened the natural landscape to a palimpsest or a document with multiple layers written over top with earlier layers still visible in some places. There were limitations the harsh natural landscape imposed on early settlers and in turn the impact of human activity is written on the landscape we see today. Inscapes are mental constructions of reality, e.g. in a well-known early painting of the Saguenay area the artist was able to articulate how people first saw their own country. Proscapes are what the future landscape is turning into and will be influenced by the workings of nostalgia, myth, fantasy, and local identity. Nature was ‘a home’ – to first peoples, but became at various times ‘a wilderness to be conquered’, ‘an icon’, ‘a commodity’, and ‘a resource’. In developing new pillars of sustainability he suggested that authenticity and complementarity to farming will be key. Growth should be not quantitative but smart and creative.

WIth our fifth lecture we took a break from the main concept with the wonderful presentation “Bioblitz Secrets of the Bell Bushlot Preserve’ by our own Tineke Kuiper, Tally Master of our successful MVFN Bioblitz 2009. An appropriate lecture as we held our first ever bioblitz and a relevant prelude to 2010 an International Year of Biodiversity.

Lectures 6 and 7 looked at indicator species and species at risk. In his presentation A Stitch in Time: Monitoring Indicator Species to Diagnose Ecosystem Vitality, Bill Crins explained that indicator species may not always be the ones you expect. No single indicator species is adequate. It depends on the habitat and the ecosystem. They need to be not too common and not too rare. Ideally they are things that don’t move (not large animals like Moose) and are habitat specialists. A good indicator is also easy to detect and measure, well known in terms of life history and ecological requirements, and it is helpful if it is colorful, big, charismatic or unusual in some way. Indicators are needed on a coarse and fine scale. Examples of good indicator species on a coarse scale could be eastern wolf and beaver, on a medium scale, lake sturgeon, ovenbird, whip-poor-will etc. and on a fine scale the walking plant, fen plants, pollinating insects. Other examples given were species which are good indicators in particular ecosystems e.g. for riparian corridors – ebony jewel wing, a damsel fly, for bedrock on soil – the walking fern, for a mature forest -lichens on mature wood, Lungwort for old growth forest, tawny cotton grass for fens vs. a different cotton grass for cedar swamps.

In Paula Norlock’s lecture Bringing Species back from the Brink: Some Good News, the good news is that the status of species such as peregrine falcons has improved. The other good news is that about 80 recovery teams are reviewing biology, habitat requirements and threats to improve the status of many species at risk in Ontario.

The other end of the A2A conservation connection is the Adirondacks, the largest protected space in all of North America. This area has surprising similarities to Lanark County as Cathy Keddy outlines in our front page story about our Spring Gathering 2010. The Adirondacks will be the topic of our final bonus lecture which will be presented by our keynote speaker Dr. Jerry Jenkins of the Wildlife Conservation Society, NY during our Spring Gathering event, 2010 May 20, 2010 in Carleton Place.


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Algonquin to Adirondacks (A2A): A Continental Conservation Connection with Emily Conger, President of A2A Conservation Association


Press Release

Sept 7, 2009

The Lanark County link in the Algonquin to Adirondacks Conservation Connection

You may have heard of the transcontinental Yellowstone to Yukon initiative to conserve Rocky Mountain biodiversity, but did you know that Lanark County is part of another continental conservation connection? It is called Algonquin to Adirondacks, or A2A for short. The A2A area covers the part of the Canadian Shield that stretches for about 300 km from Algonquin Provincial Park, across the St. Lawrence River, to Adirondack State Park in New York. And Lanark County is a vital link in this conservation chain.

The Mississippi Valley Field Naturalists (MVFN) 2009-2010 lecture series, Algonquin to Adirondacks: Big Picture Conservation, will begin September 17 with a presentation by Emily Conger, President of the Algonquin to Adirondacks Conservation Association. Emily will speak about conservation accomplishments and progress under this initiative, highlighting the role Lanark County can play and the benefits this can bring to individual landowners and the public as a whole.

The A2A vision requires us to consider protecting biodiversity and the integrity of ecosystems on a scale broader than we are accustomed to thinking about-planning on a scale bigger than landscape, larger than a national park, and extending beyond the jurisdiction of most land management units. At this scale, conservation issues can be addressed and projects undertaken using initiatives, impractical locally, but which can provide benefits for those who live here (such as the re-introduction of native species or the re-establishment of natural, large-scale ecosystem-creating processes).

In light of climate change, the focus of the A2A initiative-maintaining a natural, north-south connection as a biological highway-is imperative for there to be the ecological resilience needed for species survival. Learn more about A2A and the Lanark link at Ms. Conger’s presentation, Algonquin to Adirondacks: a Continental Conservation Connection, 7:30 pm., Thursday, September 17, Almonte United Church Social Hall, 106 Elgin St. in Almonte. All are welcome ($5 fee for non-members). For further information, please contact MVFN’s Program Chair Cathy Keddy at 613-257-3089 or visit

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