Mississippi Valley Field Naturalists
March 26, 2008
Submitted by Pauline Donaldson
MVFN’s recent lecture explored why turtles outlived the dinosaurs but are now in trouble in Ontario
Photo: David Seburn discusses local populations of Blanding’s turtles with a carapace after MVFN lecture. Photo by Howard Robinson
Ecological consultant David Seburn was guest speaker March 20th for the 6th lecture in Mississippi Valley Field Naturalists (MVFN) series “Our Natural World: Conservation Challenges.” The lecture focused on Ontario’s turtles which Seburn describes as ‘endlessly fascinating’. As a species they have been around for so long they saw the dinosaurs go extinct! This is especially remarkable when one considers the relatively few species of turtles worldwide and only eight in Ontario.
The turtle’s shell, perhaps their best known and most unique feature, represents a serious biological limitation, Seburn explained. “They are enclosed in a little box so when they breathe they must compress their organs.” And when they need to pull in their head and limbs for defense, they have to hold their breath! Egg-laying is also a challenge. Not surprisingly the females tend to be larger than males to make room for eggs.
Seburn took the audience through the characteristics and distribution of Ontario’s eight turtle species and the conservation challenges they face. Interestingly, though loss and fragmentation of Ontario’s wetlands was one challenge highlighted, habitat protection did not dominate the discussion. Neither was the threat of global warming a major concern as we are at the northern limit for these reptiles’ successful egg hatching, so warmer temperatures could be beneficial. Why then, are six of Ontario’s eight turtles on the Canada’s ‘species at risk list’? As Seburn explained, Painted turtles and Snapping turtles are doing well. However the large Map turtle is of ‘special concern’ and the Spiny softshell, the Stinkpot, the Blanding’s and the Wood turtle are all considered ‘threatened’. The spotted turtle is in more serious trouble listed as ‘endangered’. It is rarely seen now.
Clues to the answer are the increasing adult mortality rate and the survival of eggs. Once turtles reach adulthood they can live a long time, and have the potential for a surprisingly long reproductive life combined with low rates of adult mortality. However, the natural success rate for eggs is so low that adult mortality must be kept at only 1-2% to maintain population stability. Unfortunately increasing adult mortality from road hazards has become a major problem when turtles travel on land to lay eggs or move to different food sources. The Blanding’s and Wood turtles are quite terrestrial and can travel 1-2 km to nest. Secondly, exacerbating a naturally low egg success rate is increasing predation from overpopulations of ‘subsidized’ predators such as raccoons in parks. Reaching more than 4 times regular rural numbers they can eat 100% of any turtle eggs in an area. Sadly sometimes the only warning sign a population is in trouble is it’s disappearance as all the adults eventually die off leaving no young.
Seburn made some suggestions to help conserve Ontario’s turtles. Short of closing down roads, municipalities can use drift fences or culverts to channel turtles across roads, and perhaps turtle crossing signs. Individuals can help turtles cross roads in the direction they were going (do not handle snapping turtles -lift them with a shovel). Large ‘ecopassages’ have been used in some places with great success in reducing mortality of a wide range of wildlife species. Recovery strategies for Ontario’s turtles also include research and population monitoring.
Info. from Seburn on identification and reporting turtle sightings has been posted on MVFN’s website (see Turtle Watch 2008 filed under Conservation). Turtle sightings can be reported locally to Mississippi Valley Conservation or to the Toronto Zoo Turtle Tally project by calling 416-392-5999.
‘Focus on Mammals’ by Glenn Desy (MNR) will be the last lecture in MVFN’s Conservation Challenges series, Thursday April 17th at 7:30 pm at the Almonte United Church Social Hall in Almonte. For more information, please contact Joyce Clinton at 613-257-4879 or visit MVFN’s website at www.mvfn.ca.
Turtle Watch 2008
The goal of the Turtle Watch program is to better map out the distribution of the Blanding’s Turtle and Stinkpot (both of which are threatened) in eastern Ontario. All of the data collected will be shared with the Natural Heritage Information Centre of the Ministry of Natural Resources which tracks rare species.
How to Recognize a Blanding’s Turtle
With bright yellow on the underside of the head and neck, it is difficult to confuse a Blanding’s Turtle with any of the other turtles native to Ontario. In addition, the carapace or upper shell is domed or helmet-shaped, in comparison with the flatter carapace of the Painted Turtle. Adult Blanding’s Turtles are typically 13-20 cm in length. Check out the following website for a photo and more on the Blanding’s Turtle: http://www.carcnet.ca/english/reptiles/species_accounts/turtles/Emydoidea/emydoidea.html
How to Recognize a Stinkpot
The Stinkpot is a small turtle rarely more than 13 cm in length. The top shell is brown or black, often with dark lines and dashes. It is highly arched and commonly covered in algae. Two light stripes are present on each side of the head, one above and one below the eye. Older individuals may have a mottled head pattern instead. Check out the following website for a photo and more on the Stinkpot: http://www.carcnet.ca/english/reptiles/species_accounts/turtles/Sternotherus/sternotherus.html
Please submit the date and location of your observations. If you can provide the UTM coordinates from a topographic map (or a GPS) that would be great (e.g. 0446250 4972150, Mapsheet 31B/13). Please also provide a description of the location (e.g. County Road 20, 0.5 km east of County Road 18, Township of North Grenville, Leeds and Grenville County) and the habitat (adjacent to Kemptville Creek). Please submit your observations even if you can’t provide an exact location.
Submit observations to
Please put Turtle Watch in the subject header
Mississippi Valley Field Naturalists
March 12, 2008
Submitted by Pauline Donaldson
Conservation Challenges: Focus on Turtles
On Thursday, March 20, the Mississippi Valley Field Naturalist’s (MVFN) proudly present a lecture by David Seburn, author of Ontario’s recovery strategy for turtles and an ecological consultant who specializes in the conservation of reptiles and amphibians. The lecture entitled “Biology, Ecology and Conservation of Ontario’s Turtles” will be the 6th in MVFN’s series “Our Natural World: Conservation Challenges.”
David Seburn is a member of the Ontario Multi-Species Turtles at Risk Recovery Team. Turtles are amongst the most endangered of all living things in Canada. According to Seburn about ¾ of Ontario’s turtles are on the species at risk list as either endangered or a species of special concern. Seburn has worked for the past 9 years on the conservation of the endangered Spotted Turtle in Eastern Ontario. This turtle is a small, slow growing turtle which does not always reproduce every year. It is in decline and now rare in many areas. It is sensitive to degradation of water quality in the marshes, beaver ponds, vernal pools and other wetlands where it is found. Spotted turtles are also susceptible due to popularity for the pet trade and habitat destruction.
The lecture on turtles by David Seburn, as with other lectures in MVFN’s series this year, will take a back-to-basics approach in focusing on a specific group of animals, in this case turtles. David will discuss the basics of turtle biology and provide a introduction to the identification, ecology and distribution of Ontario’s turtles including the northern map, the stinkpot, spiny softshell, wood turtle, spotted turtle, snapping turtle, Blandings, and Midland and western painted turtles, with a focus on those of concern locally.
David will then go on to explore why these animals are so vulnerable. What are the major threats facing turtles and what can we do to help conserve these beautiful and fascinating creatures?
David Seburn’s presentation will be March 20th at 7:30 pm at the Almonte United Church Social Hall, 106 Elgin St., Almonte. There is a fee of $5 for non-members over 16. Refreshments are provided. All are welcome. For more information, please contact MVFN’s President Mike McPhail at 613-256-7211 or see MVFN’s website at www.mvfn.ca.