MVFN Nature Notebook: Coyote or coyote x wolf hybrid?
Recent sighting received January 25, 2017
Lise Balthazar, Sheridan Rapids reported: “Yesterday [January 24], in the middle of the snow storm, I spotted a large animal running after a group of deer in our back field. It looked too big to be a coyote but a bit small to be a wolf. Could it be a coywolf?”
Photos were taken by Nat Capitanio
Tyler Wheeldon (Trent University) who spoke at our October lecture: “It can be difficult to accurately identify wolves/coyotes in central Ontario based on physical size and appearance due to hybridization that has occurred between wolves and coyotes, both historical and contemporary, which has led to intermediate-sized canids of variable appearance. Typically, genetic analysis is required to confidently assign an animal as wolf or coyote in central Ontario. However, based on the photos and the location of the sighting, my personal opinion is that the animal in question is probably an eastern coyote and not an eastern wolf, or at least is more coyote-like than wolf-like. The face seems quite coyote-like to me.”
The following is an Action Alert notice posted by Ontario Nature:
Declaring war on wolves and coyotes?
To comment directly on EBR Registry Number 012-6073 go to the Environmental Registry, create an account and submit your comments online by January 18, 2016
On December 17, 2015, Ontario’s Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry (MNRF) posted a nasty surprise on the Environmental Registry: a proposal to weaken wolf and coyote protection in northern Ontario (EBR Registry Number 012-6073). The holiday timing ensured that as little attention as possible would be given to the issue before the January 18 deadline.
The Ministry is proposing to remove the game seal requirement for wolves and coyotes in northern Ontario. This means that anyone with a small game licence would be legally permitted to kill up to two wolves and an unlimited number of coyotes per year. The excuse? Moose populations are in decline. The reality? MNRF’s proposal to increase hunting of wolves and coyotes is unlikely to benefit moose, and may have other unintended negative consequences.
Removing the requirement to purchase a game seal eliminates the hassle for hunters – anyone can shoot a wolf or coyote, on the spot. At the same time, it eliminates an important source of funding for research and MNRF enforcement of hunting regulations (Game seals cost about $11.00 each for Ontario residents). It also gets rid of mandatory reporting requirements regarding wolf and coyote sightings and hunting effort – information which helps inform management strategies for moose and predators alike.
Is this under-funded ministry needlessly shooting itself in the foot?
Indeed, MNRF’s own report, “Factors that affect moose survival,” suggests that the proposal is unlikely to have the intended impact:
“The number of moose killed per wolf pack will not significantly decrease as the pack size is reduced, so removing just a few wolves from each pack will not decrease overall predation on moose. … Only in limited circumstances may small reductions in pack size result in minor reductions in predation that benefit moose populations in localized areas.”
In the event that large numbers of predators are killed, however, there could well be unintended repercussions. Many scientists have underlined the importance of apex predators such as wolves and their “disproportionately significant” role in the survival of native species and ecosystems. The loss of these so-called “strongly interactive animals,” even locally, can “precipitate ecological chain reactions” (M.E. Soule et al, 2005).
For example, regarding wolf removal in Alberta intended to benefit caribou, S.K. Wasser et al. (2011) warn that a rapid expansion of deer populations is likely, with an increased risk of disease transmission, highly variable predator-prey oscillations and marked alterations in vegetation. They recommend that management “prioritize and exhaust feasible actions to control human use on this landscape before triggering more extreme actions, such as predator removal.”
A similarly cautious approach is surely advisable in Ontario as well. Weakening protections for wolves and coyotes in northern Ontario is a lose-lose proposition: if only a few predators are killed, it won’t do much for t moose; if a substantial number are killed it could well trigger a cascade of problems for moose and other species.
Please join Ontario Nature in urging the MNRF to:
1) maintain existing hunting activity reporting and game seal requirements across Ontario; and
2) determine better ways to deal with the moose decline in northern Ontario.
Re. EBR Registry Number 012-6073
Mississippi Valley Field Naturalists
April 4, 2008
Submitted by Pauline Donaldson
“Conservation and management of coyotes, wolves and cougars” at next MVFN
On Thursday, April 17, the Mississippi Valley Field Naturalist’s (MVFN) will host a lecture by Glenn Desy, a wildlife biologist who has studied a variety of rare birds and mammals, but who has a special interest in wild canids, the group of dog relatives that includes foxes, wolves, and coyotes. The lecture “Conservation and Management: Coyotes, Wolves, and Cougars” will be the last one in MVFN’s series “Our Natural World: Conservation Challenges.”
Glenn Desy’s work as a wildlife biologist has spanned ten years and taken him around North America studying a range of species and habitats from boreal birds to mangrove monitor lizards. His University of Guelph thesis work was part of a 4-year Georgian Bay ‘wolf telemetry’ study involving year-round wolf capture, snow tracking, and prey surveys. Recently Desy joined the Ministry of Natural Resources in Kemptville as Species at Risk Biologist with the Natural Heritage Information group.
Wolves and coyotes are symbolic of the wilderness. As top predators they require a lot of territory and can compete with humans for resources. The Eastern wolf has disappeared from southern Ontario but is found in Eastern Ontario where its hunting is regulated under the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act (1997). It is listed as a species of special concern provincially and nationally. The Eastern wolf is distinct from the northern Gray wolf (Canis lupus) and very closely related to the red wolf (Canis rufus). Hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans) makes distinctions between the species more difficult. Which do we have here and what are the differing landscape needs and predation talents of the wolf, the coyote, and the coy-wolf hybrids? Our speaker will help answer these questions and explore ways to manage human/wolf interactions, to help conserve them, and increase our understanding of these animals.
Desy also plans to talk about wild cats or cougars. They remain a source of widespread interest to local residents. An endangered species, the Eastern Cougar tends to be quite rare in this area but their presence in Ontario is generally acknowledged, as there have been hundreds of sightings reported. Glenn Desy’s presentation is 7:30 p.m., April 17th at the Almonte United Church Social Hall, Elgin St., Almonte. All are welcome and refreshments are offered. There is a $5 fee for non-MVFN members. For information, please contact Joyce Clinton at 613-257-4879 or see MVFN’s website at www.mvfn.ca.